Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis:  5 point summary of highlights, further details in leishmaniasis module of Tropical Medicine teaching series

  • parasitic infection transmitted by the bite of a sandfly
  • distinct skin, mucocutaneous & visceral forms of infection are known
  • leishmaniasis is present in one or more of its forms in the Indian Subcontinent, the Middle East & Mediterranean rim, Central and South America
  • some cutaneous lesions can be treated conservatively
  • laboratory confirmation of diagnosis requires specialist pathology services

Dengue

Dengue: 5 point summary of highlights, further details in arbovirus module of Tropical Medicine teaching series

  • viral infection of humans spread via Culicine mosquitoes
  • in rare cases may prove fatal
  • clinical features may not distinguish dengue from other infections
  • dengue can be acquired in tropical Australia
  • no antiviral treatment is effective against dengue

malaria

Malaria: 5 point summary of highlights, further details in malaria module of Tropical Medicine teaching series

  1. commonest fatal parasitic infection worldwide
  2. prevented by avoiding bites from malaria-bearing Anopheles mosquitoes
  3. all international travellers to malaria-endemic zone with fever on their return have malaria until proven otherwise
  4. malaria cannot be completely ruled out by a single, one-off blood test
  5. first line treatment recommended for uncomplicated malaria is based on an ACT-containing regimen unless good reason for choosing otherwise